Rigaku SSLS

Smart Sample Loading System
Rigaku’s new Smart Sample Loading System (SSLS) adds a new dimension of flexibility to the ZSX Primus WDXRF spectrometer. For sample types that are amenable to such a process, a vacuum chuck can be used to load samples into pre-loaded sample holders. This sample loading system has two important consequences: time is saved by the operator since they are no longer required to manually load each sample in a sample cup and the number of samples that can be held on the sample deck is increased significantly

Permissible sample types
Rigaku’s SSLS can handle samples up to 50 grams in weight and the modular sample deck racks have been designed for different sample diameters. Samples with a diameter of 35 mm can be stored 32 samples to a rack with three such racks sitting on the deck. Samples with a diameter of 40 mm can be stored 24 samples to a rack with a possibility of three of these racks on the deck. In addition, the racks can be mixed so that different sample sizes are easily accommodated on the deck at the same time. Sample types that are amenable to this type of loading procedure include fused glass beads and pressed powders. Both plastic and metal pressed powder holders are permitted.

Sample handling
A precision vacuum chuck is used to safely and reproducibly pick up the samples and place them in the measurement sample holder. Each sample type has a specific sizing ring positioned in the measurement sample holders to assure that the sample is properly positioned for measurement, and the analytical reading surface is never compromised.

Sample tracking
Keeping track of samples has never been easier. A two-dimensional barcode can be attached to the non-analysis surface of each sample. Before the sample is lowered into the pre-evacuation chamber through the input port, the barcode is scanned and the sample information is loaded into the control software.

Increases the number of samples on deck
The maximum number of samples that can be loaded in the same installation space as compared to the conventional sample changer has been increased from 48 to 104 units (when ∅35mm sample trays are used)
Flexible combination of sample trays
It is possible to combine various sample trays (the sample trays for the standard sample holder, for ∅35mm sample size and ∅40mm sample size) in various combinations with a simple software operation for deck configuration.
Automated analysis interface provided
By communicating with the automated analytical system control computer, the sample set at the sample transfer position is measured automatically. Significantly reduces labor requirements and improves accuracy
With integrated barcode reader (option), labor requirements are reduced and data transcription accuracy increased.

Smart Sample Loading System

Permissible sample types
Sample handling
Sample tracking

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ZSX Primus Applications

Analysis of Low Concentration Sulfur in Petroleum-based Fuels by WDXRF According to ASTM D2622-10

This application note demonstrates quantitative analysis of low concentration sulfur in diesel fuel, gasoline and kerosene according to ASTM D2622-10 on Rigaku ZSX Primus, a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer.

Sulfur in petroleum-based fuels contributes to atmospheric pollution. Sulfur content in fuels, especially in automobile fuels, is strictly controlled and regulations of sulfur content in fuel oil such as diesel fuel and gasoline have been tightened. Therefore, control of sulfur content is very important in refinery plants. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for quantitative analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels, owing to simple sample preparation. In XRF analysis of fuel oil, samples are simply poured into liquid cells and any complicated treatment such as chemical decomposition or dilution is not required. In addition, concentration of total sulfur is obtained in XRF analysis.

Analysis of standard metal alloys


Every industry in the United States regulates production and manufacturing of goods for quality and accuracy. One way to regulate an industrial process is through a Quality Control (QC) Quantitative Calibration with a WDXRF (wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence) spectrometer, such as the Rigaku ZSX Primus II spectrometer.

A WDXRF quantitative calibration consists of a precisely measured analytical method that is optimized for the material being analyzed with a variety of reference standards. When reference materials are not available to set up a Quantitative Calibration method, the Rigaku ZSX software offers a Semi-Quantitative or standardless quantitative evaluation that can be used for QC and differentiation of product types.

The table shows data collected on three different certified reference materials using the Rigaku Primus II. B.S. T-22 is titanium alloy standard. Ult1233 (64B) is a cobalt alloy standard. Inco 690 (201A) is a nickel alloy standard.

Analysis of trace lead in TiO2 powders used in cosmetics


Due to the hazards of trace heavy metals on the environment, many regulations have been established to lower the limits of these components drastically from previous acceptable levels in various products. X-ray fluorescence analysis is widely used in process control, quality control and other fields because it can perform qualitative and quantitative analyses quickly and non-destructively. Advances in fundamental parameter methods and the use of the SQX analysis programs to calculate semi-quantitative values from qualitative analysis results without the need for standards are becoming more prevalent. As an example consider the determination of trace Pb in TiO2 powder, a pigment widely used in cosmetics to obtain a desired color. Three different cosmetic samples were pressed at 20 tons of pressure using an Al ring to form a pellet and run on the Rigaku ZSX Primus II XRF spectrometer. The measurements conditions are listed in Table 1.

Automotive catalyst

Motor vehicle catalytic converters provide an environment for chemical reactions in which toxic combustion by-products such as nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt hydrocarbons are converted to safe or less toxic substances including oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor and carbon dioxide. A refractory ceramic monolith with a honeycomb structure forms the core of the converter to which an alumina "washcoat" is applied at 10-50 μm for increased surface area to boost efficiency. The catalyst itself, typically the noble metals platinum, palladium and rhodium, are incorporated into the washcoat in suspension before it is applied to the core. Barium sulfate and rare earth compounds such as a ceria-zirconia solid solution, lanthana and hafnia are also commonly added as oxygen storage materials, thermal and surface area stabilizers, and promoters.

Beryllium Analysis in Beryllium Copper Alloy

This application note demonstrates beryllium analysis in beryllium copper alloy.

Beryllium copper alloy has almost as high strength as steel, the strongest among copper alloys. In addition, it has various features such as non-magnetic and non-sparking characteristics, having high electric conductivity and ductility. Owing to these features, beryllium copper has many uses; springs, electric connectors, tools in environments with explosive vapors and gases, and music instruments. Since characteristics and uses of beryllium copper alloys depend on beryllium concentration, it is important to analyze beryllium in beryllium copper. Beryllium is the lightest element among the elements which can be analyzed by XRF spectrometry. The element line of beryllium, Be-Kα has very long wavelength, 11.4 nm (or very low energy, 0.109 keV), having very shallow critical depth. Therefore, X-ray intensities of Be-Kα are significantly affected by the surface condition of specimens. For beryllium analysis by XRF spectrometry, surface treatment is essential. Owing to the long wavelength of Be-Kα, beryllium analysis requires high-power wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers equipped with the analyzing crystal with high reflectivity for Be-Kα.

Failure analysis using the Rigaku ZSX Primus wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and SQX standardless analysis


Failure analysis can involve many analytical techniques to determine the cause for failure. WDXRF has been proven to be a very useful method to aid in failure analysis since in many cases elemental composition can be central to determining the failure mode. With today's modern semi-quantitative methods, which operate without needing elemental standards, the analysis can be performed quickly and easily.

As an example we analyzed a sediment deposited in a water chiller thought to be important for the potential failure of an X-ray instrument in our own laboratory. In this case only two grams of powdered sample was recovered for analysis. The sample was prepared by drying and placing it into a plastic sample cell with Prolene film as the surface analyzing window, as seen in Figure 1....

Granite mapping

In an effort to better understand the world around us, geologists are always striving to make new petrographic discoveries about even the most commonplace materials seen every day. Granite is one such material. Due to vast elemental variety found in mined granite, an interesting analytical opportunity presents itself, in which an elemental map or profile analysis capability would be ideal. In the field of modern, cutting-edge wavelength-dispersive XRF technology, this analytical capability exists only in Rigaku's ZSX Primus series of WDXRF research-grade spectrometers.

Lubricating Oil Analysis by WDXRF According to ASTM D6443-04

This application note demonstrates quantitative analysis for lubricating oil according to ASTM D6443-04 on Rigaku ZSX Primus, a wavelength-dispersive XRF spectrometer.
Lubricating oil is given functional properties for specific purposes by mixing additives with base oil. Therefore, it is very important to control concentrations of additive elements in production plants of lubricating oil. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for quantitative analysis of additive elements such as Mg, P and Zn in lubricating oil owing to high precision and simple sample preparation of XRF analysis. In the XRF analysis of lubricating oil, a sample is simply poured into a liquid cell, and any complicated treatment such as chemical decomposition or dilution is not required.

More application notes are available by submitting the application request form